Solar cells are small, square-shaped panel semiconductors made from silicon and other conductive materials, manufactured in thin-film layers. When sunlight strikes a solar cell, chemical reactions release electrons, generating electric current. Solar cells are also called photovoltaic cells or “PV cells” and can be found on many small appliances such as calculators.
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) System Components
A PV system components include PV modules (groups of PV cells), which are commonly called PV panels; one or more batteries; a charge regulator or controller for a stand-alone system; an inverter to convert solar power from direct current (DC) to the alternating current (AC) of the utility grid-connected system; wiring; and mounting hardware or a framework. A PV module arranges individual PV cells, and the modules are grouped together in an array. Some of the arrays are set on special tracking devices to follow sunlight all day long and improve system efficiency.
PV System Installation, Maintenance, and Longevity
You could install a photovoltaic (PV) or solar electric system yourself. But to avoid complications or injury, you are strongly recommended to hire a reputable professional contractor like Zorays Solar with experience installing solar systems. While they are sophisticated electric systems, PV systems have few moving parts, so they require little maintenance. The basic PV module (an interconnected, enclosed panel of PV cells) has no moving parts and can last more than 30 years while requiring little maintenance. The components are designed to meet strict dependability and durability standards to withstand the elements. The best way to ensure and extend the life and effectiveness of your PV system is by having it installed and maintained properly. Most PV system problems occur because of poor or sloppy system installation.
Incorporating PV Systems into Your Home and Business
PV systems today can be blended easily into both traditional and nontraditional homes, powering appliances and electric systems. PV cells can be installed as a stand-alone module that is attached to your roof or on a separate system, or using integrated roofing materials with dual functions – that as a regular roofing shingle and as a solar cell making electricity. The most common practice is to mount modules onto a south-facing roof or wall. PV systems likewise can be blended into virtually every conceivable structure for commercial buildings. You will find PV used outdoors for security lighting as well as in structures that serve as covers for parking lots and bus shelters.
Sunlight Requirements for PV Systems
A photovoltaic (PV) system needs unobstructed access to the sun’s rays for most or all of the day to be effective. Shading on the system can significantly reduce energy output. Climate is not a major concern because PV systems are relatively unaffected by air temperatures, and snow cover typically melts quickly because panels are positioned directly into the sunlight. Abundant year-round sunshine makes solar energy systems useful and effective nearly everywhere in Pakistan.
The Size of Your Solar PV System
The size of your solar system depends on several factors such as how much electricity or hot water or space heat you use, the size of your roof, how much you’re willing to invest, and how much energy you want to generate.
Other Solar Technologies
- Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems concentrate the sun’s energy using reflective devices such as troughs or mirror panels to produce heat that is then used to generate electricity.
- Solar water heating systems contain a solar collector that faces the sun and either heats water directly or heats a “working fluid” that, in turn, is used to heat water. For more information on installing a solar water heating system.
- Transpired solar collectors, or “solar walls,” use solar energy to preheat ventilation air for a building.